Natural antibacterial agent
Natural antibacterial agent
In recent years, with the enhancement of people's health and safety awareness, antibacterial and deodorant processing has developed rapidly in various functional finishing of fibers and textiles, and antibacterial textiles have been widely used in people's daily life. The antibacterial agents currently used can be roughly classified into three major categories of inorganic, organic and natural antibacterial agents. The inorganic antibacterial agents mainly include silver zeolite, silver silica gel, silver activated carbon and the like. Organic antibacterial agents include quaternary ammonium salts, terpenoids, and organometallic compounds. However, the chemicals of the above antibacterial finishing agents are liable to cause environmental pollution and have a certain harmful effect on human health. With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and the popularity of green textiles, the use of natural substances to make textiles have antibacterial properties has attracted more and more attention. Under the influence of returning to nature and environmental awareness, natural antibacterial agents will become the first choice for antibacterial textile production in the future.
1. Types and characteristics of natural antibacterial agents
Natural antibacterial agents mainly come from extracts of natural substances, which can be roughly divided into three categories: animals, plants, and minerals.
1.1 Animal antibacterial agents
Among the natural antibacterial agents, animals mainly include chitin, chitosan and insect antibacterial proteins.
The most representative animal natural antibacterial agents such as chitin and chitosan. Chitosan is a chitin derivatized from the shells of natural crab shells, shrimp shells and insects. It has excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and golden yellow grapes. Cocci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have inhibitory properties, and have characteristics such as hygroscopicity, gas permeability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, biological activity, chelation and enzymatic curing.
There are two main mechanisms for the antibacterial finishing of chitosan:
1 The amino cation of chitosan  attracts anions such as sialic acid phospholipids constituting the cell wall of the microorganism, and as a result, the degree of freedom of the microorganism is restricted, hindering its metabolism and reproduction;
2 A large amount of low molecular weight chitosan invades microbial cells, hindering the microbial genetic code from DNA to RNA replication, thereby hindering the proliferation of microorganisms. Chitosan has inhibitory ability against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In addition, chitin is also used in many applications. The chitin powder is added to the chemical fiber, or the chitin fiber is blended with other fibers to produce a textile with antibacterial health benefits. Because it does not contain chemicals and metal components, it can be used as a high-grade green antibacterial textile.
Insect antibacterial protein is one aspect of the textile industry using biotechnology. There are more than 150 kinds of antibacterial proteins isolated from insects. Insects have strong adaptability to the environment and are highly resistant to the invasion of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. . The antibacterial proteins secreted from their bodies have heat resistance and broad antibacterial properties, and have a certain effect on drug-resistant pathogens.
1.2 Plant anti-infectives
Among the natural antibacterial agents, there are cypress, wormwood, aloe, and the like. There are many researches on the dyeing of vegetable dyes in textiles and the application of synthetic antibacterial agents on fabrics. Researchers at Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Beijing Institute of Clothing Technology and Suzhou University are engaged in natural dyes such as rhubarb, licorice and scutellaria. , research on the dyeing of berberine, medlar, comfrey, turmeric, catechu, mulberry, and hematoxylin. Its plant species are mainly divided into the following categories.
1.2.1 桧 油
It is obtained by distillation of cypress, and is a pale yellow oil composed of two components, namely, a neutral oil which is a sesquiterpene compound of the essence essence and a phenolic acid oil having an antibacterial activity. The acid oil contains decyl alcohol (or heptanol), and the main component of the neutral oil is axe. The antibacterial mechanism of cedar oil is that there are two oxygen atoms in the molecular structure that can be complexed and coordinated, which is denatured by the action of proteins in the microorganisms. It has a broad antibacterial effect, especially for fungi. Its acute toxicity LD50  is 1500 mg/Kg (mouse oral), and skin irritation is quasi-negative.
Artemisia argyi is a perennial herb of the family Asteraceae. It is a traditional custom in our country to hang wormwood in the Dragon Boat Festival to deworm and prevent disease. The smell of mugwort has a calming effect on calming the mind and body. The main components of Artemisia argyi are 1,8-amylacena, a-consylone, acetylcholine, choline, etc., which have antibacterial, anti-allergic and anti-allergic effects.
Aloe vera is a lily plant, there are more than 300 kinds, it can be roughly divided into two kinds of medicinal and ornamental, such as sun aloe, shale aloe and aloe vera. Aloe vera with medicinal ingredients has been used in medicine, cosmetics and health foods. The medicinal ingredients of aloe include two kinds of polysaccharides and phenols. Among them, aloin, which plays a major role, has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. In recent years, aloe extract has been used as an antibacterial agent for fabrics.
Licorice is a perennial herb of the family Leguminosae, mainly produced in China and Afghanistan. It is often used as a crude drug in traditional Chinese medicine and is a herb that has long been recognized by people. The main component of licorice is sweet licorice, which has 150 times sweetness than sucrose. After acid hydrolysis, glycyrrhetinic acid, glucuronic acid and flavonoid glycoside are formed. It has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutation, anti-ulcer and detoxification effects. It is less toxic and safe for humans.
Amaranth, commonly known as Houttuynia cordata, is a perennial herb of the genus Poaceae. The medicinal components of the leaves and stems of the leeks mainly contain decanoyl acetaldehyde and methyl decyl ketone lauric acid. It has strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and linear bacteria. Because of its high safety, it is used as a fabric health care processing agent.
Tea contains a variety of chemical components, mainly polyphenolic compounds, alkaloids (caffeine), catechins and so on. Studies have shown that catechins have inhibitory effects on microorganisms such as streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. It also inhibits the activity of tyrosine decarboxylase. In addition, it has many medicinal functions such as anti-virus, fungicidal, detoxification and anti-cancer.
1.2.7 Pomegranate skin
Pomegranate is a deciduous shrub of the pomegranate family. It is native to Iran. The peel can be used as a medicine. Its extract has the activity of inhibiting collagenase. It can develop ecological antibacterial fabric with high consumption performance, and its pigment component can be used as a direct dye for cotton fabric. Antibacterial finishing. The experimental results of the Japan Institute of Health Research showed that the dyeing concentration was above 50% (by weight of the fabric), and the pomegranate dyeing had the antibacterial power and durability in accordance with the Sanitary Society's evaluation criteria. In addition, it meets the color fastness standards of JIS bath towels in terms of color fastness. Therefore, Japan is developing pomegranate as an ecological antibacterial finishing agent that does not pollute the environment.
Many other plants have certain antibacterial properties, such as scutellaria, berberine, cork, hematoxylin, valerian, chrysanthemum, comfrey, mustard extract, pepper, garlic, etc., we need to dig and study them more.
1.3 Mineral natural antibacterial agent
Natural antibacterial agents are antibacterial agents extracted from minerals such as: biliary, realgar and the like. Cholesterol has a strong inhibitory effect on pyogenic cocci, dysentery bacillus and salmonella; and realgar has a strong killing effect on various skin fungi and intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Minerals with antibacterial properties have a long history as pharmaceutical applications, and their application in textiles is still in the exploratory stage. The "Melma" processing method for the production of skin protection products introduced by Shimadzu, Japan is not only the application of natural minerals. It pulverizes the natural mineral into a powder that is fixed inside the fiber. The products produced by this method have good washing durability, good slipperiness and moisturizing effect, and are particularly resistant to or resistant to allergies and allergens.
2. Application of natural antibacterial agent in textile
2.1 Processing methods of antibacterial fabrics
Natural antibacterial agents There are two main methods for producing antibacterial fabrics: fibril processing and post-processing.
The fibril processing method, also known as the antibacterial fiber method, is obtained by a method of physically modifying, chemically modifying, compound spinning, and adding an antibacterial agent to a spinning solution to spun fibers. The chemical modification technology is divided into a grafting method, an ion exchange method, and a fiber obtained by ion exchange. Since the metal ion forms an ionic bond with the ion exchange group of the fiber, it has a long-lasting antibacterial effect; an antibacterial agent is added to the spinning solution. It is the main means to develop antibacterial fiber. The fiber fabric processed by this method has the advantages of good antibacterial effect and long lasting effect, but it is difficult to control the particle size of the finishing agent particles; composite spinning is an antibacterial masterbatch and raw material prepared by using the antibacterial agent. The core-sheathed fibers are formed by a method of composite spinning. The antibacterial masterbatch is used as the skin layer, and the raw material is the core layer. The antibacterial fiber obtained by the method has only the antibacterial agent distributed in the cortex of the fiber, so that less antibacterial agent is required than the antibacterial agent method in the spinning solution, thereby reducing the physical mechanical properties of the fiber due to the introduction of the antibacterial agent and taking The impact of performance.
The post-finishing method is a method in which the antibacterial agent is applied to the surface of the fiber by dipping, padding, coating, etc., and is fixed on the textile in the process of textile printing and finishing, and has the antibacterial effect. The advantage is processing. Simple, the disadvantage is that the antibacterial agent is only present on the surface of the fiber, is not resistant to washing, has a large amount of dissolution in the initial stage, and has a problem of wearing safety. Mainly by dipping method (padding method), surface coating method.
One of the main methods of treating fabrics with natural antibacterial agents currently in use is microcapsule technology. The technique involves encapsulating the active ingredient of one or several natural antibacterial extracts in a microcapsule and then fixing it in the fibers of the fabric to make it a health care fabric. Some of the capsules in the fiber burst open when they come into contact with the skin. Aroma and antibacterial agents are emitted. Give play to its health care role. For antibacterial microcapsules, the composition and thickness of the wall material can usually be varied to control the release rate of the microcapsule antimicrobial agent. Extend the durability time. The microcapsules can be incorporated into the textile by coating processing or by padding together with a fixing agent or the like.
2.2 Application of antibacterial textiles
Antibacterial textiles are widely used, and can be applied to the following aspects.
(1) Used in shirts, summer dresses, dresses, baby clothes, sportswear. Making clothes with antibacterial fiber can effectively solve sweat odor and bacterial growth and bacterial infection, reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases, enhance their resistance to bacteria, and create their own healthy environment.
(2) applied to underwear. It can play a role in antibacterial, perspiration, moisture, and sweat removal. It has the effects of improving local hygiene, eliminating body odor, and guiding moisture and deodorization.
(3) applied to socks and various footwear. Using antibacterial fiber to make shoes and socks can improve the bacterial growth of the feet, inhibit the growth of bacteria, perspiration, moisture, deodorization, and also help the prevention of dry feet, sweat and foot cracks.
(4) Used in bedding, towels, bath towels, as well as blankets, carpets, and decorative fabrics. Prevent the growth of bacteria, mites, skin diseases and other diseases. Therefore, antibacterial function is of great use.
(5) Antibacterial non-woven fabric made of antibacterial fiber is applied to hospital bedding, laboratory, surgical sterile clothes, doctors and nurses. It can effectively solve the cross-contagion between people, people and things, things and things, and achieve the purpose of scientific prevention.
(6) Antibacterial vehicles that can be used in automotive decorative fabrics to obtain a new concept.
(7) Strengthening cement with antibacterial staple fiber can not only improve the strength of cement, but also make concrete antibacterial, and can be used in public places where bacteria, such as parks, wards, and zoo walls, are easily propagated.
(8) In the air-conditioning home appliance industry, the use of non-woven fabrics of antibacterial fibers as a filter can greatly reduce the proliferation of bacteria and reduce the number of washings of air-conditioning filters.
3. Development trend
3.1 Fabrics made from antibacterial fibers are superior to finishing fabrics in terms of antibacterial effect and durability, so the development of new antibacterial fibers with permanent antibacterial effects is a new trend in textile research.
3.2 Due to the excellent washing resistance of the fabrics prepared by the nano antibacterial finishing agent, the antibacterial effect is high and durable, and has the advantages that other buried agents are difficult to compare. The development of nano finishing agents is a hot spot of antibacterial finishing today.
3.3 Antibacterial finishing with fabrics with hygienic, health-care, comfort and easy-to-storage functions, and multi-finishing effect in anti-mildew and anti-mite.
3.4 Chitosan has a great role in the production of textiles because of its good antibacterial effect, biodegradability, and large storage capacity in nature.
4, the conclusion
In recent years, the concept of green consumption has been rising, and the promotion of clean production has been carried out. Natural antibacterial agents have catered to the consumption psychology of returning to nature and health and strengthening the body with its unique resources of rich resources, biodegradability and good absorption performance. The development and research of “green” health care natural antibacterial agents has far-reaching significance. Of course, the safety of the application of natural antibacterial agents should also be cautious, and it cannot be considered that the natural is absolutely safe. Therefore, textiles treated with natural antibacterial agents must be inspected before being placed on the market.
China has abundant reserves of animals, plants and mineral resources, and has thousands of years of experience in the application of Chinese herbal medicines. Therefore, it is a major trend to develop natural antibacterial agents for textiles that meet the needs of society. If we rationally develop our existing resources, then we are in antibacterial finishing. Can be among the best in the world.
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